Core Subjects: What Are They?

Some subjects really form the core of your curriculum.

If you’re just starting to plan your home school journey, your first step should be to plan out your core subjects.

A core subject is a necessity: something your child has to learn in order to be educated. The good news is that the core subjects are relatively straightforward. There are really only four:

Language Arts

Of course, it’s not quite that simple, since Language Arts has four different components:

Reading (phonics for younger children, literature for those already reading well)

Writing (composition)



We strongly suggest that you think of “language arts” as four different subjects, rather than investing in a complete “language arts” curriculum. Grammar and spelling are skill-based subjects, meaning that your student should master them in a planned, sequential manner, using workbooks and exercises; literature is an exploration-based subject, meaning that you can pick and choose what you want the student to read (but she’ll never read all of it!); writing combines aspects of both skill and exploration. Most combined language arts curricula either do skill or exploration well—but not both. (Also, complete language arts programs for young students who are still studying phonics almost always require far too much handwriting and fine motor work by linking reading skills to writing skills.)

So as you construct your first year of home education, begin by settling on texts for each of the following:

For all students:






For students in grades K-2 only, add in:


Penmanship (handwriting)

For students in grades 3 and up only:

Writing (composition)

Literature (rather than selecting a “text” for this, we strongly suggest that you simply use a reading list and have the student read through a selected number of wonderful books)

For guidance in recording these subjects on a transcript for students in grades 9-12, see How to Assign High School Credits.”

You can find complete recommendations for all subjects and grade levels in The Well-Trained Mind: A Guide to Classical Education at Home, fourth edition.



9 thoughts on “Core Subjects: What Are They?

  1. Could not get the link for transcript credits to work. Came up with a page not found error. Do you have that link somewhere else? Thanks

    1. Why do you consider the Bible a subject? I consider it a source. It can be the main source for your religion studies and one of many sources for history and literature. A planned reading program that includes an introduction to the world’s great stories, poems, and writers helps to mold an intelligent, informed adult.

  2. So don’t add writing until 3rd grade? So I shouldn’t start Writing with Ease until 3rd grade? I thought I read that it should be done at the same time as First Language Lessons 1, which is recommended for 1st grade?

    1. No, sorry if that was unclear. You can start WWE anytime in grades 1-3. It is often done concurrently with FLL. A student should start WWE once he or she is comfortable with reading short passages and is fairly adept at the physical act of writing.

  3. Where might one find a cogent list of required high school core subjects for the state of Colorado? I’m afraid I’ve been rather unsuccessful navigating the state’s educational websites. I can find articles describing how one’s school should undertake to incorporate the state’s guidelines for their school, but have not yet found an actual listing of core classes or general electives. I’m also looking for how they score the credits; 1 per class, 5? I do plan on visiting colleges this year in preparation for my 8th grade daughter’s admission journey, primarily to find out whether getting joint high school/college credits would be helpful or harmful in obtaining scholarships – and I may get these answers there. I may also venture into the local high school and speak to a guidance counselor about these questions; however, my interactions with the, pardon me, idiots there in the past don’t give me much hope. Sorry for the pertness, I”m not operating on a lot of sleep today.

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